Osmoregulation here's a fancy topic of the newer spec i've never done the kidney so i spent my post-a levels life in total kidney ignorance and utter lack of knowledge of my urination habits and their complexity, oh what a fool i have been you on the other hand are going to have the damn honour of actually having a clue. Hey the french doctor claude bernard defined the homeostasis as the ability of a given system to remain at its steady point, no matter the external variations ( to put it in a simple way) in the case of the kidneys, you can for example imagine that if you take very salty crisps, those organs are going to maintain the. 112a, c 512c a level kidneys filter the blood, removing waste such as urea and balancing the water content the kidney – structure and function a student prepared a cross-sectional slide of the kidney cortex label three structures visible in the image of this slide below (3 marks) if a person suffering from chronic high. Depending on the level of the cause, hydronephrosis may be unilateral involving one kidney or bilateral involving both the increased it also may allow the health care practitioner to look for the underlying cause including kidney stones or structures that are compressing the urinary collecting system depending upon the. Diagrammatic structure of a liver lobule the liver and bile duct [back to top] the biliary system hepatocytes (liver cells) absorb nutrients, and also detoxify and remove harmful substances from the blood this is a relatively soft tissue, with a unique ability to regenerate after injury approximately 75% of the.
The kidneys are paired retroperitoneal structures that are normally located between the transverse processes of t12-l3 vertebrae, with the left kidney typically somewhat more superior in position than the right the upper poles are normally oriented more medially and posteriorly than the lower poles. Renal system anatomy described including kidneys, renal artery, renal vein, and the urine production system written for health care consumers by the hypothalamus in the brain detects the level of substances in the blood and controls the secretion of hormones antidiuretic hormone, aldosterone, and. What i want to do in this video is talk a little bit about the kidney-- and this is a big picture of a kidney-- and to talk about how it operates at its-- i guess you could call it its smallest functional level and that's the nephron so we're going to talk about the kidney and the nephron and i think you might already know the kidney. Position: it is situated at the level of t12-l3 the right kidney is usually slightly lower than the left, probably because of the considerable space occupied by the liver anatomy of kidney longitudinal section of the kidney shows following parts capsule: it is an outermost covering composed of fibrous tissue.
Now only wastes are in the nephron these wastes are called urine and include urea, water and inorganic salts the cleansed blood goes into veins that carry the blood from the kidneys and back to the heart process of urine formation each kidney has very minute tubular and convoluted structures known as. To unlock the full series of as, a2 & a-level biology videos created by a students for the new ocr, aqa and edexcel specification thi.
The fluid filtered from the blood by the glomerulus then travels down a tiny tube- like structure called a tubule (pronounced: tu-byool) that adjusts the level of salts , water, and wastes that are excreted in the urine filtered blood leaves the kidney through the renal vein and flows back to the heart the continuous blood supply. Control of chemicals dissolved in the blood kidney structure and function filtration, reabsorption units are working nonetheless, damage to the kidneys can cause the functional capacity to drop below this level, and fatal illness will develop unless an artificial system is employed to perform the work of the kidneys.
Balancing the levels of certain chemicals in the blood in the outer part of the kidneys, tiny blood vessels cluster together to form structures called glomeruli for example, some water and salts may be absorbed back into the bloodstream, depending on the current level of water and salt in your blood. Similar findings were obtained for sub-groups of genes with either kidney-specific or housekeeping functions conservation of gene expression at the scale of the whole organ and divergence at the level of its constituting sub-structures likely account for the fact that although kidneys assume the same.
The kidneys lie on either side of the spine in the retroperitoneal space between the parietal peritoneum and the posterior abdominal wall, well protected by muscle, fat, and ribs they are roughly the size of your fist, and the male kidney is typically a bit larger than the female kidney the kidneys are well vascularized,. Diabetes is a disease in which your body does not make enough insulin or cannot use normal amounts of insulin properly this results in a high blood sugar level, which can cause problems in many parts of your body diabetes is the. Analysis of results from whole kidney simulations explicitly modelling all nephrons in a rat kidney, including comparison with animal data at both whole organ level and the nephron level analysis methods that bring together the three dimensional euclidean space representation of anatomy with the complex network used.